- The finestquality
- Free globalshipping
- Super easyrefunds
What is the best antibiotic for pneumonia treatment bronchitis
Acute pulmonary infection (treatment bronchitis, pneumonia) What it is?
Acute pulmonary infections are a large group of diseases encountered practitioner. The mortality rate from these diseases is 5%, and they represent significant challenges for treatment at home.
From the standpoint of a clear classification and differential diagnosis of this group of diseases is difficult enough. The main difficulty is the diagnosis and determination of the origin of the disease. Usually not easy to decide whether we are dealing with a new acute illness or exacerbation of chronic; whether the symptoms are a manifestation of some preceding pulmonary disease or pulmonary infection, this - an independent disease.
So, what is an acute lung infection? They show a clear clinical syndrome: the presence of cough, high temperature, purulent sputum, and sometimes other signs of lung infection, such as shortness of breath and chest pain. Often, but not always, these data are confirmed by examination and chest X-rays.
Characteristic features of the disease are sudden beginning, symptoms of pulmonary infection and lesions that are detected in the percussion, auscultation and chest x-ray.
The names and terms. What are the symptoms of these diseases and what is their cause? And in this case we are faced with the difficulties of transferring certain etiological and pathoanatomical classification of acute pulmonary infections in laboratories and hospitals in the home practice.
The etiological classification based on convincing identify bacterial or viral causes are not at home because of the imperfection of the research methodology. In my own experience, I realized that even using all available for setting etiological diagnosis methods of examination, I got the desired results in one third of cases.
Pathological approach to diagnostics is also impossible, because it is based on a study of the corpses of people who died from the disease, and the family doctor treats survivors. Although the term "pneumonia" and "bronchitis" is used routinely, their use is associated with serious practical limitations. In fact, it is convenient, but very vague "shortcuts" that do not allow us to classify the disease and do little to explain the development of the disease in those types of diseases that occur in general practice.
The term "pneumonia" - nothing more than an attempt to artificially merge "pneumonia" and "bronchitis"; wherein the disease is meant less pronounced than pneumonia, and at the same time not completely bronchitis. It will spend a large amount of research in the field of general practice of acute pulmonary infections, to truly determine their nature and character, and give the correct names.
Let me classify clinical forms of acute pulmonary infections based on their own experience.
The causes and causal factors. It is found that the subject diseases are caused by bacteria and some viruses. Bacteria include pneumococci, streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes), influenza bacillus (Haemophilus Influenzae), staphylococcus, tuberculosis bacillus and bacillus Friedlander (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Because viruses are found influenza viruses, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV), psittacosis (ornithosis), measles and Mycoplasma pneumonia (Mycoplasma pneumoniae). The reason may also be rickettsia Barnet causing Q-fever. Such a transfer is necessary for the understanding of acute pulmonary infections and examination of patients in a hospital, that is in the hospital. However, in general practice it does not really matter, because the causal factors usually can not be determined because they are not acting in its pure form, but as a combination. In addition, they are imposed on the individual characteristics and living conditions of the patient.
Among the most common infectious agents in general out-patient practice is a mixture of pneumococcal and influenza sticks in conjunction with viruses. But there are also a number of secondary factors that create conditions for the development of infection.
The infection in the lungs may develop on the background of certain lung diseases, such as cancers, chronic bronchitis, fibrocystic disease (cystic fibrosis), bronchoconstriction associated with old tuberculosis, foreign bodies in the bronchi, bronhomstazy and some other diseases.
Among the aggravating factors of the disease Social emit poor living and working conditions, malnutrition. For individual characteristics influencing the disease include a commitment to smoking, age, and allergy inherent in children and the elderly. Family history of respiratory diseases is also important: it may be due to some, the time is not known factors. Matter prior predisposing diseases: asthma, chronic bronchitis, or sinusitis. All of them make a person more susceptible to acute lung infection.
Incidence. Acute pulmonary infections are a significant part of the overall morbidity. For example, in England and Wales Among the 2,500 people served by an English family doctor a year, 50-60 people with acute pulmonary infections. Of these, 20-25 people are hospitalized, 2-3 people die.
Table 3 Acute pulmonary infection (according to England and Wales)
The distribution of incidence by age and sex. Sick more often men than women, the ratio is 3: 2. This difference is particularly noticeable in children (boys more likely to get sick), and in old age, as is more common in men and chronic bronchitis because they are particularly prone to exacerbations of lung infections.
In general, the age distribution expressed by a U-shaped curve, the form of which may vary.
Functional and pathological changes caused by the disease. Changes that occur in acute infections of the lungs and bronchi, create additional difficulties in the treatment of patients. If affected, and thus excluded from breathing large enough portion of the lung, there is respiratory failure, followed by a delay in the body of carbon dioxide, reducing the concentration of oxygen in the blood and disturbance of acid-alkaline balance. It is more common in patients who have previously suffered lung disease, as well as the elderly and people with weakened lungs and bronchi. Difficulties circulation in the blood vessels in the lung atelectasis and blockage of small blood vessels leading to right-sided heart failure (cor pulmonale - pulmonary heart).
Any worsening of the disease will inevitably interfere with the function of breathing, and with frequent exacerbations may develop chronic respiratory failure.
Clinical variants. When considering the pattern of acute pulmonary infections attempts to compare the clinical and research data and making concrete forms of the disease can only confuse matters. Keep in mind that similar clinical syndromes can be caused by a variety of bacteria and viruses. Faced with symptoms that appear to indicate an acute lung infection, the doctor must immediately investigate the situation and act without waiting for the results of laboratory diagnostic tests.
Earlier illness. The health status of the patient in the past is important. The immediate predecessors of acute pulmonary infections can be common upper respiratory tract infection or influenza, and chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema, tuberculosis or recurrent acute pulmonary infections. It is important to immediately evaluate the patient's predisposition to lung disease and his general condition.
Symptoms. The symptoms of a possible lung infection are cough, sputum, shortness of breath, chest pain and general disorders such as fever, malaise, and intoxication. Home may be unexpected and be accompanied by loss of consciousness and signs of serious illness. Such features are characteristic of acute pneumococcal, staphylococcal or viral pneumonia, but these diseases are now rare. Much more often the disease begins slowly and less dramatically. The patient for a few days there is increasing cough, sometimes with difficulty in breathing, aches and pains in the i small ore cage. Man does not feel seriously ill, and only under medical examination and X-ray examination had found changes in the lungs.Cough accompanied by the release mucopurulent yellow, green or brownish phlegm.
The admixture of blood is unusual, and its appearance should alert the clinician to a possible tuberculosis or lung cancer.
Shortness of breath characteristic of bronchoconstriction, which is reflected in the appearance of wheezing; severe lung disease; coupling lung lesions in heart failure, and finally, when involved in the inflammatory process significant portion of lung tissue. Chest pain can range from a vague ache in his chest in the affected area of ??acute mild to severe pain in the pleura.
Overall condition is usually slightly broken and patients are treated as outpatients. Very rare cases, when the disease begins immediately with a high temperature and expressed malaise.
Signs. The main pathological signs are diffuse, dry wheezing and crackles in a limited area, which listens on inspiration.
Acute wheezing in the chest. In this group of patients have difficulty breathing and clearly listened over both halves of the chest wheezing inspiratory. These symptoms are more common in young and elderly patients, and some have a tendency to recur.
Restricted crackles. This group includes patients for a few days feel bad and suffer from growing irritant cough, accompanied by general illness. When listening to them on the basis of one or both lungs on inhalation is defined by section moist rales.
For other symptoms include pleural rub, seal, atelectasis, or pleural effusion. It should be emphasized that currently such patients are rare. Specific disease. There are some characteristic features of the various lung inflammation caused by specific microorganisms.
Pneumococci frequently cause nonspecific changes, but it is typical to the development of acute lobar pneumonia, which in adults begins suddenly and runs hard, with loss of consciousness, fever, pain in the pleura and sharp painful cough with bloody sputum. The patient's condition is very bad, the temperature is high, breathing frequent and superficial. On the lips are often a rash. Sometimes it is confusion and delirium, especially in the elderly.
A few days later developed lung seal, wheezing and crackling noise on the affected area. These symptoms can be observed for several weeks in spite of effective antibiotic treatment.
Staphylococcal pneumonia is common in infants and preschool children as a manifestation of general purulent infection and may be complicated by a purulent pleurisy. Staphylococcal pneumonia is also observed during epidemics of influenza.
Wand influenza and pneumococcal combined with chronic bronchitis worsens.
Fridlenderovskaya pneumonia (pathogen - Klebsiella pneumoniae) - a rare infectious disease with a massive seal lung tissue, lung abscess and purulent pleurisy. It is more common in older adults and chronic alcoholics.
Pulmonary tuberculosis may still occur as an acute pulmonary infection. This should be remembered in cases where the disease is difficult to treat with antibiotics.
Viruses can cause acute pulmonary infections, but often in combination with bacteria. In children, the most likely cause of lung disease virus is respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV).
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (pathogen - Eaton factor) may be responsible for some of the epidemic of acute pulmonary infections of unknown origin.
The overall approach. Faced with a case of acute lung infection, the physician must weigh a number of factors before settling on the final version of the treatment.
Firstly, it must ensure that it deals with acute lung infection. Acutely occurring diffuse wheezing are also symptoms of asthma - a disease in which the basis is not an infection. But in such cases, there are indications of previous attacks. Diffuse crackles and shortness of breath may be signs of acute left-sided heart failure. They are characteristic of people aged 60 years and older with high blood pressure or a previous myocardial infarction. In doubtful cases should be possible to make a chest radiograph.
Secondly, you must decide whether or not a primary pulmonary infection, or whether it is secondary, and is a sign of another disease. Check and eliminate the possibility of cancer bronchitis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, because it is, of course, affect the choice of treatment.
Thirdly, there must be an attempt to establish the cause of the infection, but we must remember that often the attempt is doomed to failure, because the laboratory studies, even very intense, in most cases, do not give a full answer. Such studies are very important for those patients who, contrary to expectations, did not respond to treatment, and for the seriously ill.
Fourth, it is important to take into account the individual characteristics of the patient and the family history of the disease. Children exposed catarrhal diseases in 4-8 years, prone to acute lung infection, but with age "grow" out of them. Asthmatics, patients with chronic bronchitis and other predisposed subjects, especially smokers, are prone to recurrent infections. When choosing a treatment, the doctor must take into account not only a predisposition, but also domestic, social and professional conditions of the patient.
Diagnosis. Such studies of acute pulmonary infections may be useful, but not always possible to, besides a particular need for them not. In those cases when we are talking about just any acute pulmonary infections in adults, it is important to rule out the possibility of cancer of the bronchi or pulmonary tuberculosis requiring special treatment. As for the children who have not emerged from the "catarrhal phase," or patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, which, as is well known, frequent exacerbations, in such cases, additional research is not so necessary. However, we must not forget that sometimes in elderly people suffering from bronchitis may develop tuberculosis or lung cancer.
The most commonly used diagnostic methods belong to the chest X-ray, sputum and functional respiratory tests.
Chest X-ray shows at some expressed forms of acute pulmonary infections, but certainly not during each bout; The importance of chest X-ray is that it confirms the diagnosis, helps to establish the location of the lesion, to evaluate the development of the disease and to exclude other lung diseases, such as cancer and tuberculosis. For the majority of patients who can be treated at home, X-ray examination should be deferred until. long as the patient himself can not come to the dispensary. If treatment is not sufficiently effective or inconclusive, it is necessary to carry out X-ray at home. In most cases, using today's portable devices can obtain satisfactory radiographs.
Sputum analysis for the presence of microorganisms is done in almost all cases, but * blowing barely remember that these studies are very limited. The appearance of sputum indicates the presence of bacterial flora. From puruloid phlegm, yellow or greenish in color, often under cultivation is not possible to isolate pathogens; they are not visible in the direct study. In my practice, bacteriological examination of sputum helped establish the cause of the disease is less than 25% of cases. Virological tests are still in the experimental stage and the research and practical value for everyday work have little.
Functional respiratory tests for acute lung infection used to establish the state of the respiratory function of the patient in the course of the disease. These tests are useful primarily for patients with chronic lung diseases - asthma or chronic bronchitis. It is easier sample, the better; to this end, using a fluorometer or vitalograf.
A blood test to identify general and specific characteristic of the infection, usually rarely used unnecessary. Treatment. Acute pulmonary infection is still treated by medical practitioners. From my own experience I can say that at least 10% of my patients needed to attract specialists or hospitalization.
Having diagnosed, the doctor must first decide for themselves the following questions: is it possible to treat a patient at home or have to be hospitalized; whether to treat a patient in the somatic hospital doctor or require specialized intensive therapy. If the patient is under the supervision of a family doctor, you should determine what the general and specific methods of treatment he will need.
The decision as to whether to treat the patient's home or in the hospital, depending on the specific circumstances, especially on the severity of the disease. Most patients suffer disease is relatively easy, but in some cases it is necessary to place the patient in a hospital, where conditions exist for intensive therapy. Management depends on the patient's home environment and on who will be able to look after him. It also depends on the willingness of the patient and his family. But no less important is the position of a doctor, in other words, whether he feels able to monitor and treat a patient at home or prefer hospitalization.
Specific treatment depends on the choice of antibiotics. The general practice still using crystalline penicillin G for intramuscular injection or one of the synthetic penicillin drugs with a wide spectrum of action, used in, particularly ampicillin. Tetracyclines are less effective and is now better suited for the treatment of chronic bronchitis with exacerbations.
The results of treatment with antibiotics is usually affected in the first two days; they are expressed in the improvement of the general condition and a decrease in coughing, wheezing in the chest. The latter, however, may make itself felt in a few weeks, although the patient subjectively feels almost completely healthy. It is not required to continue antibiotic treatment until complete disappearance of the symptoms mentioned. The usual duration of treatment 7 to 14 days. But the patient should be observed until the complete disappearance of all signs of the disease.
In some cases, the use of antibiotics is not necessary. There are children who for a number of years with recurrent lung infections, and they relapse occurs after periods of self-improvement. It is therefore important to monitor the general condition of these children than trying to actively influence the individual symptoms. If a child comes improvement from antibiotics should be abandoned. The same principles apply to the management of adult patients with chronic recurrent bronchitis. Many exacerbations are and without antibiotics.
It is customary to prescribe symptomatic agents various types of medicines for cough, but their effectiveness is doubtful. Every doctor has a favorite collection of such medicines. What can you say about this? I believe that if they recommend and medicine, the one that does not harm to be a pleasant and cheap.
Among patients with acute lung infection many people with heart failure, mostly elderly. Such patients recommend diuretics and digoxin.
In the case of bronchoconstriction can be used antispasmodic agents - ephedrine, aminophylline, salbutamol, orkiprenalin or corticosteroids.
By resorting to oxygen in acute infections with chronic bronchitis in patients with emphysema. Patients who are prone to frequent exacerbations, as well as the weakening of the respiratory function, should have oxygen tanks on hand. However, to resort to sour * "race should be cautiously and selectively in order to avoid saturation of oxygen and an imbalance of gases in the blood.
The role of physical therapies to treat the disease is not completely clear. It is necessary to stimulate the activity of the patient, if possible lead him on an outpatient basis and recommend active expectoration. Drainage of the bronchi with a special body position of the patient can be used, but at home to organize and supervise this treatment is difficult.
The disease, its outcome and follow-up. The vast majority of acute pulmonary infections disappear within two to three weeks. All patients should be monitored until full recovery.
People with normal lungs will recover completely and do not need further observation, they feel good. But there is always a group of ill people who need to identify, monitor them and almost always maintain their health. They include those who are acute exacerbations of lung infections. These are children with a "catarrhal syndrome" at the age of 3-8 years; asthmatics whose attacks combined with pulmonary infections; Patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which changed the bronchi and reduced respiratory function. This includes patients who had previously undergone pulmonary diseases (tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis) or pulmonary surgery, and those who are prone to allergic lung diseases. All of them. They need regular inspection. It is necessary to monitor the function of their breathing. When the first symptoms of acute lung infection it is necessary to appoint a course of antibiotic treatment, the effectiveness of which is set for them.
Notes. Our level of knowledge about acute lung infection, and therefore their treatment is still empirical and pragmatic. It is still very difficult studded with clinical symptoms of the underlying disease and the true cause of the disease. Available methods of research coarse and precise enough. Fortunately, the results of treatment are not: bad, because most patients recover.
A great deal of work and careful, if we want to deepen our knowledge and to improve treatments. This applies in particular to patients suffering from chronic lung disease or predisposition to them, that is, to those who are often acute, and who becomes disabled.
Acute pulmonary infection - the most extensive group of common diseases that physicians face every day. It was established that in medical practice in the average of 60 such cases occur annually.
The nature and causes of these infections is unclear. The relationship between the available clinical evidence and data conducted research is weak.
It is assumed that most of the diseases caused by bacteria or viruses. However, there are many other factors affecting the susceptibility: age, gender, social and home environment, climate, geography, individual characteristics - smoking, occupation, associated diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, bronchial cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, allergies.
Acute pulmonary infections most often affect children and the elderly.
The largest group consists of clinical patients with acute dry rattling arising over both halves of the thorax (acute bronchitis), crackles with disabilities typically over one or both halves of the thorax (segmental pneumonia or pneumonitis). Other zabolevaniya- lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, pleural effusion, purulent pleurisy - now rare.
Diagnostic tests should be carried out selectively, for their possible application as well as benefit from them are limited.
In patients who had not previously undergone respiratory diseases, the results of conventional methods of treatment are good. But there is a group of particularly vulnerable patients who need to identify and monitor in order to prevent further deterioration and to develop treatment strategies. This group includes children with 'catarrhal syndrome "patients with chronic bronchitis, some asthmatics and all those who have a history there are indications of the transferred pulmonary disease
Antibiotic for sore throat and cough, best antibiotic for cough and cold, what is the best antibiotic for bronchitis.
Antibiotics - antibiotic treatment for chlamydia - metabolic products of microorganisms that suppress the activity of other microbes. As the drugs used natural antibiotics and their semisynthetic derivatives and synthetic analogues having the ability to inhibit pathogens of various diseases in humans.
Antibiotic treatment for chlamydia, what is the best antibiotic for pneumonia.
Additionally, important in the mechanism of action of individual antibiotics, especially penicillins, have their inhibitory effect on the adhesion of microorganisms to cell membranes, best antibiotic for cough and cold.
What is the best antibiotic for bronchitis.
The mechanism of action of antibiotics largely determines the type of effects they cause. For example, antibiotics, violates the synthesis or function of the microbial wall cytoplasmic membranes, are bactericidal drugs; Antibiotics also inhibits the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, are usually bacteriostatic. Knowledge of the mechanism of action of antibiotics is necessary for their proper selection, determining the duration of treatment, selection of effective combinations of drugs and so forth.
To provide causal treatment must take into account the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics. The natural sensitivity to them due to the biological properties of microorganisms, the mechanism of action of antibiotics and other factors. There are antibiotics narrow and broad spectrum. Antibiotics narrow spectrum include drugs that suppress the predominantly Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria, some penicillin (benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, atsydo-tsillin, aztreonam, ristomycin, fuzidin-, novobiocin, bacitracin, vancomycin, monobactams (aztreonam). Narrow spectrum have, and polymyxin B, E, F, which suppress negative bacteria, antibiotics and antifungal nystatin, levorin, amphotericin B, Amphoglucaminum, mikogeptin, griseofulvin.
Best antibiotic for cough and cold.
For broad-spectrum antibiotics include drugs affecting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: a series of semi-synthetic penicillins (ampicillin, antibiotic treatment for chlamydia, carbenicillin); cephalosporins, particularly the third and fourth generations; carbapenems (imipenem, Meron thienyl); chloramphenicol; tetracyclines; aminoglycosides; rifamycins. Some of these antibiotics are, moreover, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycobacteria and others.
In identifying the infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics it is preferable to use narrow-spectrum drugs. Antibiotics are also prescribed for a wide range of severe disease and in mixed infections.
Among the antibiotics release drugs accumulate within cells (ratio of intra- and extracellular concentrations of more than 10). These include macrolides, especially the new (azithromycin, roxithromycin, spiramycin), carbapenems, clindamycin. It penetrates into the cells (the ratio of intra- and extracellular concentrations of 1 to 10), rifampicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, lincomycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, fosfomycin. Penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides penetrate poorly into cells (ratio of intra- and extracellular concentrations of less than Do not penetrate the cells and polymyxin. What is the best antibiotic for pneumonia.
What is the best antibiotic for sore throat.
In the course of antibiotic treatment to them can develop resistance of microorganisms. Penicillin, cephalosporin osporinam, monobactams, carba-penems, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, glykopeptidam, ristomycin, fosfomycin, lincosamides resistance develops slowly and simultaneously decreases the therapeutic effect of drugs. To aminoglycosides, macrolides rifamycin, polymyxin, fuzidinu resistance develops very quickly, sometimes in the course of treating a patient.
Amoxicillin (Generic) - What is the best antibiotic for bronchitiss are selected after a thorough examination, inspection and any necessary tests by the attending physician.
Bronchitis - a disease quite common, both among children and among older people, in recent years the disease in the population has become chronic. What is the best antibiotic for bronchitisIn adults, symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in different ways depending on certain factors. Before starting the treatment of the disease, it is necessary to determine the causes that led to the disease. Unfortunately, modern doctors prescribe antibiotics at random, according to the principle "more than not." However, in some forms of bronchitis antibiotics only prevents recovery. Bronchitis viral origin and without antibiotics respond well to treatment, since viruses are not destroyed antibacterial agents. In the treatment of viral bronchitis with antibiotics begins immunosuppression, dysbacteriosis, allergic reactions, bacteria develop resistance to the drug.
When bronchitis develops in an acute form the focus of inflammation in the bronchi due to ingestion of virus or infection. If to human disease in the lungs there were no pathological processes, in 95% bronchitis engineered viruses. Bronchitis acute form of viral origin, antibiotics are not necessary. If a person has a strong immune system, the treatment of staphylococcal disease, streptococcal, pneumococcal disease mainly symptomatic recovery occurs in an average of two weeks. If the body's defenses are weakened, it is necessary to take antibiotics. Acute bronchitis manifests a strong cough, chest pain, fever. Most cases recover fairly quickly (within two weeks), in some cases, the cough lasts about a month.
Chronic bronchitis is considered that if the disease occurs throughout the year frequently (total number of days of illness a year is greater than 90). In chronic bronchitis man tormented by severe coughing with mucus. This cough may be associated with hazardous working conditions, smoking, allergic reactions, infections in the upper respiratory tract. In exacerbations or recurrent disease treated with antibacterial drugs carried out in combination with expectorant drugs.
In a separate category are bronchitis Amoxil (Generic) - antibiotic treatment for chlamydia and Mycoplasma origin. Recently, bronchitis, triggered by the bacteria chlamydia and mikplazmy diagnosed more often. Development of the disease is very slow, accompanied by signs of intoxication, the disease is a protracted form, with frequent relapses, treatment of bronchitis are amenable to extremely hard. In addition to the strong man tormented by fever cough, fever, muscle aches.
List of antibiotics for bronchitis
Antibiotics are annihilating this series on the walls of bacteria, antibiotic treatment for chlamydia their action is directed only against harmful organisms, with no harm to the body as a whole. The only drawback of these drugs is that penicillin could provoke severe allergic reactions.
ATTENTION! Self-medication can be harmful to your health! The information published on the site is intended for reference only. Be sure to consult a qualified professional to not harm your health!